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Communications Network


The broadband speed, i.e. download, depends on the technology used to build the network. Most users do not really know how the network through which they access the Internet is constructed, and in practice it is most often a combination of different wire and wireless technologies.

In the case of fixed networks, today the highest transmission speed is achieved using fibre-optics that allow data to be transmitted at speeds over 1 Gbit/s.

In mobile networks, high transmission speed is achieved through 5G networks providing the average download speed over 100 Mbit/s
Technology Medium Speed
VDSL/VDSL2 Copper pairs 70 – 300 Mbit/s
DOCSIS3.x Coaxial cable 100 Mbit – 1.5 Gbit/s
FTTx Fiber optics 100 Mbit/s – 10 Gbit/s
5G Radio waves 100 Mbit/s – 1Gbit/s

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The basic parts of the electronic communications network shown in the figure below are the core, the backhaul (middle-mile) and the access (last mile) network.

Source: - FINAL-DRAFT-Kleeman-Middle-Mile-Paper

The core network typically comprises the main network nodes located in the largest cities and the interconnections between these major nodes. From the core network nodes, the aggregation links separate toward access nodes in a broadband network. Geographically, aggregation connections are usually spread from larger cities, as a core node location, to all other smaller cities and settlements where access network nodes are located.

In order for the end-user to achieve high-speed access, it is necessary that most of the network is built by technologies supporting such speeds. In practice, this means that the backhaul must be based on fiber and related technologies as well as most of the access network.
The final access speed the user will be able to achieve depends on the performance of the final part of the access network – the distribution network. If this final part is performed by fiber then, we are talking about fiber distribution network (SDM) that enables highest access speeds.
In case the final part of the access network is being performed by some other technology, such as coaxial cable or copper pairs, the maximum achievable download speeds are significantly lower.
In mobile communications networks, it is essential that base stations are connected by fiber with the rest of the network, because in this way the highest access speeds are accomplished
In the Republic of Croatia, all operators offer download speed rates from 100 to 200 Mbit/s, and part of them offers upgrades to higher speeds, up to 1 Gbit/s.